Saturday, February 22, 2020
Logic and thought - Essay Example Astrologers try to justify their beliefs by claiming that their work is based on science, but science is based on fact while astrology is not. Statistical studies can give support to the claims of astrology, but this is impossible in this case because astrology cannot be measured. 2 line A: Since the middle of the twentieth century, countless scientific studies that have ultimately supported the basic principles of astrology have been conducted. B: Michel Gauquelin, a noted French statistician, spent much of his life using statistical methods to investigate astrology; he established the truth of a number of claims, including the Mars effect, which proved a relationship between the planet Mars and outstanding athletes. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Astrology needs to be taken more seriously as an art and science that can contribute to human well-being. This argument is incorrect because it cannot be proven 100 percent that scientific studies support the views of astrology. The fallacy for this argument is a genetic fallacy. For the French statistician, he cannot prove his theory of the Mars effect because other factors may have influenced the results. Astrology is linked with destiny, personality, human affairs, and natural events.
Thursday, February 6, 2020
Argument of Value - Essay Example But, as the movie tries to portray, it never takes itself seriously. All the fun does not get lost owing to the apparent upheavals in the lives of the characters. There is a definitive degree of fresh air in the treatment of the main characters. From the very beginning, the viewer is drawn into the intricacies of the characters, their joys and life. Even in the deepest melancholy, there are streaks of hope and happiness. In that sense, this movie has veered away from the staple comedy movies which lack poignant humor, but cover it up with condescending laughter. The movie exposes the tumultuous underbelly of human emotions with a fine serving of humor. This movie is perched between a razor sharp psychological drama on one hand and comedy on another. The film has a very upbeat title, which suggests the likeliness of having a generic bent towards the creation of a happy atmosphere: that is not very serious. It has all the ingredients of a nice movie, with the creation of sequences that exude positive spirit. A hero who is full of faults, a heroine with very doubtful credentials, the Christmas streets, the snow flaked roads are a constant reminder of the impending festivities. Throw on top of that, a dance competition and a football game, the movie tries to cover all the bases for a happy Hollywood film. ... Robert De Niro has played a delicious role as the father, who is torn among different problems. He runs an illegal gambling racket out of his parlour. He has a very supportive mother, who keeps him company. However, he is supposed to stay away from his wife and has to visit a doctor. All of the characters are obsessed with something in their lives, with sports being a big obsession. There is a tradition of disruptive violence, as the crowd identifies the game with their identity. The father of the hero has been banned from appearing in the matches due to the bouts of rage, which were experienced while viewing the match. One of the central characters in the movie is a young widow called as Tiffany. She is a good looking woman who lives in the garage of her parentÃ¢â¬â¢s home. She is preparing for a dancing competition, with the help of the hero. They bond over a dinner and she agrees to help him reunite him with his wife. The strength of the film lies in the differential treatment b eing given to the generic comic situations. Although, there is a lot of pain in the lives of the characters, there is sense of joy that runs throughout the fabric of the film. There are a number of scenes that would be very difficult even in real lives, but the handling of the situations has rendered the scenes funny. Some of the examples of such scenes; as the fighting in the diner that spreads onto the street: and also among the crowd wearing the Halloween dress. The film goes over the edge at times, but never fails to maintain the humorous simplicity in the storyline. The narrative is contextual and also very relevant due to the essential foresight being provided into the human heart. The design of the story has been calibrated with a lot of alacrity, so as to incite the maximum level of
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
International Business and Global Strategy Essay In-Depth Market Analysis of two target markets: China and Argentina China is a great world exporter receiving large amounts of foreign investment and is a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Entering the market therefore will be easier than when China was not part of the WTO. According to The World Fact Book (2010) by 2009, China had a population of 1. 34 billion. Although its population growth is not very high at 0. 49, the population is the highest in the world and provides for ample market for Body Shop International Plc (BSI plc. ). China has an income distribution of 51. 10. This indicates that the distribution of purchasing power is standardized. BSI plc does not have to specialize in its clientele and can anticipate a wide market for its products. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s mean age stands at 35. 2. In the age demographics, ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest age bracket is the 15-64 yeas age category. This makes up for 71. 9% of the population as in 2008 where men were estimated at 491,513,378 and women at 465,020,030 (The World Fact Book. 2010). For BSI plc this creates a large market since beauty products are usually consumed by this age group. In terms of education, China population is educated with a literacy rate of 92% (The World Fact Book. 010) . The overall enrollment for elementary, secondary and higher education is at 69. 1. This is a good indicator that beauty products would be well received and are a part of the population that can appreciate its use. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was at 8. 70 in 2009. This GDP has been on a rising trajectory and is expected to continue as China continues to rise as an economic power. This provides for a secure market with good financial indicators that investment would respond favorably and quickly. The per capita gross income at 6600. 0 is also high making it easier for BSI plc to invest widely. The disposable income at 2. 60 represents a ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s purchasing power. BSI plc would be able to promote its products and the conditions are favorable for household spending. The continued rise in GDP growth will increase the spending habits of the population as the disposable income becomes more elastic. Inflation would negatively affect BSI plc and that is why the low inflation rate in China provides for market security against rising of prices. In china the population has continued to increase its cosmetics buying. At 46. 80 the population indicates a sizable spending on cosmetics. This creates a potential for BSI plc to garner a market share. China presents some difficulties in terms of ease of conducting business and economic freedom. However, foreign investment is still welcome and the government has opened the doors for foreign investment. Argentina is one of the countries in South America that have been experiencing economic growth. It therefore presents itself as a great target market. Its population of in 2009 was 40. 1 Million. The population growth is not very high at 1. 17 but the country has a viable market population. Argentina has an income distribution of 51. 90. This indicates that the distribution of purchasing power is high and standardized. BSI plc therefore can anticipate a wide market for its products without having to cater for a specialize clientele. ArgentinaÃ¢â¬â¢s mean age stands at 30. In the age demographics, ArgentinaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest age bracket is the 15-64 years at 63. 5% with the men standing at 12,961,725 while the women stand at 13,029,265 (The World Fact Book. 2010). For BSI plc this creates a large market since beauty products are usually consumed by this age group. According to The World Fact Book (2010) Argentina population is educated with a literacy rate of 97. %. This is a good indicator that beauty products would be well received and are a part of the population that can appreciate its use. ArgentinaÃ¢â¬â¢s growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was at 0. 20 in 2009. This GDP is low. This provides for a less secure market whereby BSI plcÃ¢â¬â¢s investment may take longer to respond favorably and quickly. Despite the global economic crisis Argentina and most of the Latin America were not acutely affected. The per capita gross income at 10200. 0 is also high making it easier for BSI plc to invest widely. The disposable income at 1. 0 represents a moderate purchasing power for Argentina. BSI plc would be able to promote its products as the conditions give room for moderate household spending. Inflation would which would negatively affect BSI plc stands at 4. 20. In Argentina spending on cosmetics has also increased although it is at 25. 40. This means BSI plc still has potential to make an investment in ArgentinaÃ¢â¬â¢s existing market. At 127. 0 Argentina represents favorable ease with which BSI plc can do business in Argentina. It also has good economic freedom. Foreign investment is welcome. Contacts and Competitive AnalysisÃ Contacts are important in that they would allow BSI plc to gather information that is relevant to its venture. That is why the chamber of commerce assists foreign companies conducting business their country. It also offers its members relevant business contacts and information about Argentina. Through events and opportunities the Chamber also enables businesses to meet with government officials and key players thus facilitating relations. Contact with the ministry of foreign affairs is also important to BSI plc. The ministry is responsible for trade agreements and policies. By having the MinistryÃ¢â¬â¢s contacts, BSI plc can make necessary plans to attend and benefit from the ministryÃ¢â¬â¢s consular and diplomatic activities. As the ministry seeks businesses and companies that would increase investment in their country, BSI plc would have an opportunity to market itself to the target countries. Contacts of possible suppliers, importers and buyers are helpful so that a company can establish business relations within the industry. The choice of Alibaba Company is ideal in that it is a recognizable global distributor with very strong financial and corporate growth according to Alibaba. om. (1999-2010). China Target Market potential The market potential in China is quite high at 2530500000. This is calculated from number of potential consumers, the frequency with which the consumers buy in a year and the price of the product. This represents the potential of the cosmetic industry in China which BSI plc targets. Company Sales Potential BSI plc sales potential is dependent on the market share it will capture out of the potential market. If BSI plc secures a market share of 13. 5 %, it will estimate whether it can meet the demand of its target. Competitors AnalysisÃ Lush Company provides competition for BSI plc. According to Lush (19950-2010) its main product is body butter. The location of its headquarters is in China providing it with advantages of proximity. BSI plc is localized and thus there are policies that favor it against foreign companies. This helps it keep its prices affordable. Lush has been in business for the past 32 years giving it long experience in the industry. Lush Company caters to the local market in China and has specialized in the product demands of the local population and tailored the product to suit the particular needs of the Chinese target market. Its employees number 1200 giving it good human resource. Lush has also invested in e-commerce offering customers its products even where it does not have retails and wholesaler stores. They vary their prices in response to the market. In their promotion strategy Lush aims to protect its reputation and maintain its image. Their products they have chosen to use to promote the quality of their product is care butter, Tuca Tuca perfume, Tuca Tuca massage oil, and Black stocking. Regulatory Environment for the industry In China, the regulatory environment would regulate cosmetic products. This is because although a company would use the Automatic import licensing granting its cosmetics products freedom from import controls, the importation of materials like plastic need monitoring. FDI regulations and implications for BSI plc China is becoming the greatest receipient of FDI and as such it is poised for economic growth and increased capital that places BSI plc in a great position for growth if it makes investment. The government regulates foreign investment according to WTO regulations and its economic goals where China is now quite open to and is keen to attract foreign investors. Argentina Target Market potential The market potential in Argentina is high at 41250000. This is calculated from number of potential consumers, the frequency with which the consumers buy in a year and the price of the product. This represents the potential of the cosmetic industry in Argentina. Company Sales Potential BSI plc sales potential is dependent on the market share it will capture out of the potential market. If BSI plc secures a market share of 3. 5 %, it will estimate whether it can meet the demand of its target. Competitors Analysis LÃ¢â¬â¢ Occitane Company provides competition for BSI plc. Its main product is mini shea butter/LÃ¢â¬â¢ Occitane body toner. According to The body Shop (2009) BSI plc deals with sweet almond oil in its moisturizers. The location of its headquarters is in Argentina providing it with advantages of proximity. BSI plc is localized and thus there are policies that favor it against foreign companies. This helps it keep its prices affordable. LÃ¢â¬â¢ Occitane has been in business for the past 34 years giving it long experience in the industry. LÃ¢â¬â¢ Occitane Company caters to the local market in Argentina and has specialized in the product demands of the local population and tailored the product to suit the particular needs of the Argentinean target market. Its employees number 2000 giving it great human resource. LÃ¢â¬â¢ Occitane has also invested in e-commerce offering customers its products even where it does not have retails and wholesaler stores. They vary their prices in response to the market. LÃ¢â¬â¢ Occitane uses advertising, personal sale and product promotions as its promotional strategy. The products it uses include shea cocoa butter, Almont body care, verbena liquid soup honey and lemon scented and summer Travil Hair care. Its target market is 14 years and above both male and female. Regulatory Environment for the industry In Argentina, one of the key regulations would be in business conduct and tradition. Companies have to publish their Technical barriers to trade (TBT) measures. It contains duty and obligations related to the business and operation of TBT investigation Points. Companies have to confirm their recognition of the Code of Good Practice. Argentina the Bureau of Customs is the governmental agency is strict in the enforcement of the tariff and Customs laws and regulations. Importation of goods is governed by a numerous of import policy. FDI regulations and implications for BSI plc Argentina is currently not attracting much foreign investment due to its slow economic development and inflation rate. Although the government is using the WTO regulations and working hard to increase investment, there is difficulty for foreign companies because of high interest rates.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Pregnancy and childbirth are a part of nature. Delivering a child can be a beautiful experience. However, delivery can also be very painful and can last for days. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã My mom drove me to what would become my last visit to the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s office before giving birth to my daughter. Dr. Dermer observed me and then told me to be at the hospital around six thirty that evening. He advised me to eat a good dinner before departing for the hospital. Dr. Dermer had decided to induce my labor, due to the fact that I was two weeks past my due date. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã I ate a good dinner and left to go to the hospital. I distinctly remember the feeling that I had in the pit of my stomach. I could not determine if the feeling was fear, anxiety, relief, or a combination of all of them. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When I arrived at the hospital the first thing that I had to do was register. Registration only took a few minutes because Dr. Dermer had already phoned the registration department and pre-registered me. I was now on my way to Labor and Delivery. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As soon as I arrived in the labor and delivery department, I saw Brian, the father of my unborn child, and his best friend Chris. I was relieved to know that he had already arrived at the hospital. One of the nurses came over and escorted us to my room. She told me to undress and put my hospital gown on. After I put my gown on, I climbed into the bed. The nurse then proceeded to stick me with needles. She had to withdraw some blood and start my IVs. She explained that the medicine in my IV bag was going to very slowly induce my labor overnight. The nurse also explained to me that this process was to prepare my body for the following morning when my medication would be increased. A short while later, I fell asleep. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã I was awakened the next morning by beeps from the IV machine. The beeps were caused from the nurse increasing the dosage of my medication. At this time, I had no idea of the day that I had ahead of me. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Around eleven that morning, I began to feel light flutters deep inside my stomach. The flutters felt as if they were rising to the surface of my stomach. Once the flutters arrived at the surface, they then seemed to pull on the surface of my stomach. The pull was a very light pull and it ac... ...rmer stated at that time that if I had not dilated anymore by three that he would have to go ahead and perform a cesarean. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã At five minutes until three the nurse checked me once again. I had still only dilated four centimeters. She paged Dr. Dermer and he told her to go ahead and prepare for the cesarean. Dr. Dermer came in at five minutes after three and checked me one last time. I had dilated nine centimeters. Dr. Dermer said Ã¢â¬Å"We wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be doing a cesarean today, she is going to have this baby.Ã¢â¬ He told me to slide down to the bottom of the bed and put my feet in the stirrups. A minute later he said he could feel the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s head. Every one was telling me to push. I grasped the handles on the side of my bed tightly and I pushed with all of my might. My daughter was born at 3:36 p.m. Brian and I had already picked out her name. We named her Courtney Brooke. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Nine years have passed since my unforgettable experience with childbirth. I love my daughter dearly and I will always cherish the memories of my three-day delivery process but believe me when I say that I will not experience the excruciating pain of childbirth again.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Fantasies vary from person to person and are dependent on psychological condition. In a clinical population fantasies tend to last longer than in non-clinical populations. Although overall each fantasy has been reported to last relatively short periods of time, the frequency of which they occur is usually the factor that determines whether they are of concern or not (Gellerman and Suddath, 2005). There seems to be a limited quantity of research available on the general understanding of this topic however the literature that does exist appears to focus on three particular areas, sustaining fantasies Ã¢â¬â as a means of coping with painful and stressful situations in the general population but particularly in the clinical population (Zelin, Bernstein, Heijn, Jampel, Myerson, Adler, Buie & Rizzuto, 1983; Harder & Zelin, 1984; Greenwald & Harder, 1994; Greenwald & Harder, 1995 & Greenwald and Harder, 1997); aggressive fantasies Ã¢â¬â for pleasure or satisfaction in the general popu lation but more often than not habitually involuntary for the clinical population and generally violent, sexual and sadistic in nature (Gellerman & Suddath, 2005; Egan & Campbell, 2009 & Selby, Anestis & Joiner (2007), and finally, revenge fantasies Ã¢â¬â concerning those who have experienced trauma (Mardi & Harowitz, 2007). In search of material for this review surprise has it that homicidal fantasies on the whole is the one of which focuses on a more simple view of its apparent natural occurrence in natural surroundings of everyday life, and highlights the evolving acceptance that many normal law abiding citizens can and do have fantasies. Sustaining Fantasy From a study conducted by Zelin et al (1983) the Sustaining Fantasy Questionnaire (SFQ) was developed to measure sustaining functions in psychiatric inpatients in comparison with non-patients. This questionnaire was constructed specifically to measure fantasies of death, withdrawal, restitution, suffering, God, closeness, power and revenge, admiration of self, competition and aesthetics. The questionnaire was then utilised to determine that psychiatric inpatients scored higher than non-patients on fantasies of death, withdrawal, restitution, suffering, God and closeness but fantasies of power and revenge, admiration of self, competition and aesthetics did not differentiate between groups. Thus, suggesting that the questionnaire was able to differentiate the groups by fantasy factors such as death, withdrawal, restitution, suffering, God and closeness and highlighted associations of power and revenge, admiration of self, competition and aesthetics with an independent measure of psycho logy. It is said that experiencing Sustaining Fantasies is a familiar, consistent and repetitive conscious fantasy adopted to help cope with feelings of a painful and stressful situation. According to Zelin et al (1983) the sustaining fantasy is a concept based on the observation that at times of extreme negative emotional states, caused by anger or narcissistic grievance, people often resort to this as a means of re-creating a more ideal situation than that of which stimulated the painful experience, fabricating a sense of satisfaction, restoring self-esteem and emotional equilibrium, and decreasing frustration. Ultimately, the sustaining fantasy is based on the assumption that such fantasies signify and demonstration the basic construction and processes that have evolved in the course of efforts to adapt to painful situations. We are reminded by Zelin et al (1983) that this fantasy is of a specific type called only into play when suffering increasing levels of stress, and should not be c onfused by those fantasies used as a disguised endeavour of pleasure or solutions to relatively un-stressful problems, such studies will be discussed later in the review. One year on, Harder & Zelin (1984) furthered the study of Zelin et al (1983) accepting that the sustaining fantasy questionnaire was developed primarily with psychiatric inpatients, but recognising also, the potential for its use in testing correlates among a more general sample. Assuming that everyone uses sustaining fantasies to aid or support themselves through highly stressful periods in life and presuming the importance of this factor in the capability to manage adaptively rather than maladaptively, Harder & Zelin (1984) extended interests and investigations into the personality functioning in the general population as well as with pathological persons. They did this by examining the relationship between the 10 types of sustaining fantasies reported by Zelin et al (1983) and two dimensions of self-concept Ã¢â¬â self-derogation and stability of self-concept, suspecting that the type of sustaining fantasy that the person characteristically brings into play will be consistent with and in support of their self-concept, an important relation with psychological-social adjustment and even a potential determinant of psychological-social adjustment. Successfully, the results demonstrated that the Sustaining Fantasy Questionnaire was reliable not only to differentiate between groups of psychiatric inpatients from normal controls, as Zelin et al (1983) demonstrated, but also to distinguish the group of college students used in this study. Just over a decade later Greenwald & Harder (1994) followed on from Zelin et al (1983), attempting to examine the expected associations between psychopathology, almost replicating exactly, apart from their use of a student population primarily from a middle-class backgrounds. In addition, Greenwald & Harder (1994) questioned if the sustaining fantasy scales associated with weaker functioning, reflects a more general pathology factor as proposed in the data of Zelin et al (1983) or, whether each reflects a particular maladaptive style that is signified by an exceptional construction of associations with the MMPI clinical scales. Further support and reliability of Zelin et al (1983) is strengthened in Greenwald & HarderÃ¢â¬â¢s (1994) findings that power/revenge, death/illness, withdrawal/protection and suffering are all related significantly to two of the MMPI measures of overall psychopathology, therefore four of the six fantasy types that imply psychopathology in the inpatients (Ze lin et al, 1983) were too the indicators of pathology in the study using the middle-class students. Considering all of the previously mentioned studies (Zelin et al, 1983; Harder & Zelin, 1984; Greenwald & Harder, 1994) it seems fair to say that ample evidence has been gathered to show that definite types of sustaining fantasy ideas, characteristically used to comfort the self when experiencing feelings of hurt and stress, are associated with indications of psychopathological adjustment. The aim for Greenwald & Harder (1995) was then to examine to what extent there are parallels between them and the degree to which such content ideas may well point out psychopathology. With reference to past research on daydreaming, where Singer & Antrobus (1972) have suggested that particular collections of imagery content appear to propose less favourable styles, there seems to be similarities with the findings of Zelin et al (1983), although they did emphasise the difference between other fantasies such as daydreams and remind us not to confuse them. Contrary to this emphasis and that of Zelin et al (1983), clinical impressions have proposed that in more ways than one, the overall content of these two types of fantasies is rather parallel. As a result of this proposal, Greenwald & Harder (1995) investigated whether sustaining fantasies generally show a strong similarity to the typical daydreams preferred by an individual, or whether there really is a movement from the content of ordinary daydreams to the familiar self-comforting ones that provide support during feelings of pain and stress. To do this they compared the Sustaining Fantasy Questionnaire and the numerous Imaginal Process Inventory (IPI) (Singer & Antrobus, 1972) scales for correspondence in content and in their relationships to measures of psychopathology, and a great deal of consistency was discovered even when partialling for social desirability. It was concluded that there was in fact considerable overlap in the content and of correspondence between both, sustaini ng fantasy and daydreams, and furthermore, it was highlighted that three particular IPI scales were observed to give significant indications of psychopathology Ã¢â¬â fear reaction, bizarre and hostile. Despite the delight in these findings Greenwald & Harder (1995) speculated the possibility that rather than the findings being a result of specific content they may be the result of a broad level of association between the two scales. In pursuit of this speculation further analysis detected the average degree of correlation between SFQ and IPI characteristics in comparison to the level of association displayed by those relationships they predicted, finding that although there was no significance, there was a trend toward significance. Thus, suggesting that a general commonality between the SFQ and the IPI may have been a factor in contributing to the extent of their success in predictions for the study. On this note one should be reminded that for the purpose of reliability and validity, considering an underlying weakness alongside the success is vital for future study in terms of recognising the possibility for individuals to very well fantasize and daydream simultaneously in ordinary and/or stressful situations. It is now becoming apparent that sustaining fantasies are perhaps not quite as specific from other fantasies in particular situations such as coping with stressful matters, as was first thought, or, that if they are, they do not always emerge completely alone. Based on the results of this study Greenwald & Harder (1995) propose the question of whether it would be beneficial to use the findings of their study, subsequent past research, to investigate clinical manipulation of the content and/or frequency of fantasy having therapeutic effects, bearing in mind the given definition of sustaining fantasy in Zelin et al (1983) at the beginnings of this extensive research. To address the proposed questions that emerged from Greenwald & Harder (1995) they conducted another study in 1997 replicating the previously discussed studies and replicating reported relationships between coping behaviours and psychopathology however, this time they utilised measurement instruments that were developed by different investigators, presented different response formats, and were not developed to measure the same content areas as before. They assessed whether consistent relationships exist between the content of self-reported coping behaviours, sustaining fantasies, and ordinary daydreams and in addition attempted to identify coping behaviours associated with psychopathology, exploring any connections between coping behaviours, fantasies, and daydreams correlated with pathology. Pearson correlations indicated similar content between coping behaviours and the two types of fantasy and significant inter-correlations were found between sustaining fantasies, daydreams, and coping behaviours that, separately, were found to be significantly associated with psychopathology. In the process of this investigation, and with influencing thoughts created by the previous workings, Greenwald and Harder (1997) took into consideration the likelihood to expect there would be a consistency between the region of fantasy and behaviour, and that individuals would report thoughts and action in parallel ways but then again, consider also that it is also probable to anticipate that fantasies could serve as a substitute for action, and that a report of specific fantasy content might be inversely associated with behaviour that contains similar content. Growing in strength, again the results of Greenwald & Harder (1997) were successful in that there is a significant association with regard to the content among self-reported daydreams, sustaining fantasies, and coping behaviours, even after controlling for social desirability. These results are found to be more influential due to the fact that they were obtained with assessment instruments that were developed by different investigators, used different response formats, and were not developed to measure the same content areas. Therefore, this information suggest that, while there may be some instances of fantasies and behaviours that relate inversely to each other, fantasies usually are consistent with behavioural coping styles. These findings then highlight that there is a complex of daydreams, fantasies, and behavioural responses that could be used to characterize individuals. Furthermore, to generalize the findings of this study it was recommended that future studies should be conducted with other subject populations that take into account age, culture, socioeconomic status and residence environment (Greenwald & Harder, 1997), however, it seems appropriate to mention that perhaps at this point it is a good time to look at how the sustaining fantasy ideology has branched out to embrace other influencing factors. Aggressive Fantasies Egan & Campbell (2009) expanded research on sustaining fantasies almost taking it to a new level by selecting a diverse population, as recommended by Greenwald & Harder (1997), but more importantly taking into account other domains that showed potential to reveal relationships from another angle. Such were, sensational topics, general personality traits, and self-reported physical aggression. They found relationships between sensational interests and physical aggression, regardless of gender. Personality and the application of negative sustaining fantasies significantly forecast physical aggression. When the SFQ was reduced to three higher order factors; positive, negative, and narcissistic sustaining fantasies, correlations were found between neuroticism (N) and both positive and negative sustaining fantasies, although the association was stronger for negative fantasies. There were small associations between positive sustaining fantasies and indirect non-physical hostility although these relations were humble, and openness (O) was a stronger predictor. Narcissistic sustaining fantasies related to low levels of agreeableness (A), replicating associations between low A and narcissism generally. Ultimately proposing that aggressive and hostile persons are more stimulated by violent stimuli and that isolation is a further risk-increasing factor for aggressive interests. Following on from this conclusion of risk-increasing factors, attention was directed back a few years in literature to a study conducted by Gellerman & Suddath (2005). They discussed risk-increasing factors in relation to questioning at what point would a health professional perhaps become concerned with a personÃ¢â¬â¢s fantasy enough for it to become their duty to forewarn or protect others from potential dangerousness, or even attempt to protect the person from them self. In the health profession an evaluation of dangerousness includes not only asking about violent fantasies but also asking about physical and sexual content (Gellerman & Suddath, 2005). Gellerman and Suddath (2005) looked at the conditions in which the disclosure of violent fantasies to a mental health professional may generate cause for concern and a duty to warn or protect other citizens. Reviewing legal cases in which violent fantasies were considered in the context of measuring potential dangerousness and the literature available on homicidal and sexually violent fantasies in both non-incarcerated and criminal populations was also examined. It was concluded that no dependable predictive relationship between violent fantasies and wickedly hazardous behaviour was reported in the available literature and suggestions of issues that mental health professionals may think about when gauging whether a particular violent fantasy is a sign for concern requiring rise to a duty in protecting others. At last, this paper is very interesting in that it is greatly unbiased and clearly discusses both the harmful aspects of fantasy as well as the innocent or un-harmful aspects, thus showing the importance of distinguishing between the two possibilities, which must be said, is something that is lacking in the papers previously reviewed. Gellerman and Suddath (2005) explained in detail the definition of violent fantasy for the purpose of their paper which must be credited as again, not many papers in this field have done so. They expressed their perception of violent fantasy as a thought in which an individual imagines physically harming a fellow human being in some way. They explain that the content of individual fantasies may vary from anything such as murder, sexual assault, or inappropriate sexual activity. It is emphasised that fantasy must be distinguished from an intention, in that the imaginary violence is not instantaneously designed to guide or prepare for action. On the other hand, it is said that any expression of intention to harm another person is when we should have cause for concern as this is without doubt communicating a Ã¢â¬Å"threatÃ¢â¬ rather than a fantasy. Gellerman and Suddath (2005) noted two important points in terms of distinguishing between fantasy being harmless or harmful, firstly, while not instantaneously aimed at guiding action, fantasy has been illustrated as serving a number of clinical functions, including control and relief of anxiety and substitution for action therefore harmless to others and at the same time very useful to the fantasizer, secondly, from a harmful perspective fantasy may also be preparation for action and it is from this perspective that concern should be heightened in the evaluation of dangerousness and the duty to protect. Gellerman and Suddath (2005) go on to give balanced examples of both harmless and harmful fantasies. In their comparisons of both sides and in both populations, un-incarcerated and criminal, together with their overall review of the literature they used, they suggest that as fantasies of murder were fairly common in general Western European and American populations, and a range of fantasies of aggression and sexual violence were less common, but were by no means rare, people should bear in mind that this high prevalence of homicidal and sexually aggressive fantasy can only make us question then, to what extent can such fantasies be considered deviant. In addition it should be highlighted that Gellerman and Suddath (2005) found that existing studies have evidently established that many more individuals have homicidal and sexually violent fantasies than act on them. The relationship between violent fantasy and behaviour in these studies was correlative at best, and no suggestions were given in attempt to identifying the minority of individuals with violent fantasies who may be at risk of acting them out. Altogether, it was concluded that predictors better than fantasies alone are the eminence of the fantasies, the concern with them, and the level of preparation and detail, and the history of any past violent behaviours all need to be looked at collectively (Gellerman & Suddath, 2005). Another study of interest where aggressive fantasies seek personal pleasure but in a paradoxical way is that of Selby, Anestis & Joiner (2007). They reported that suicidal individuals regularly report the reoccurrence of fantasy where they can visualise their death by suicide very clearly in their imagination, almost like watching it on TV. Selby et al (2007) found that many unremittingly suicidal individuals are thought to have a romantic affection for death and as a result, connect themselves in vivid fantasies or daydreams about the process and the after-effects. This somewhat idealistic thought process even appears to be a pleasant motion for them. In desperation of escape from torment and pain (Baumeister, 1990), it seems that the act of suicide is the answer and therefore thinking about the liberation that death would present, perhaps enables suicidal individuals to experience positive affects similar to that of non-suicidal individuals daydreaming or fantasizing about future life events such as holidays (Selby et al, 2007). This daydreaming may actually be a form of emotion dysregulation, in suicidal individuals, one that would appear, perhaps paradoxically, to increase positive affect yet may increase later risk for serious suicidal behaviour. This psychological state was also considered by Zelin et al (1983). Revenge Fantasies Suicidal behaviour, just like the fantasies they provoke, vary in content and from person to person however for the purpose of this review it should be mentioned that revenge fantasies among many other things, can often be the cause for suicidal behaviour (Mardi & Harowitz, 2007). In one way the reason behind the fantasies are similar per se; feelings of rage shame guilt etc., but in another way very different; often unwanted and uncontrollable. Revenge fantasies are described as being beyond normal bitter thoughts and sometimes dangerous. The study conducted by Mardi & Harowitz (2007) was an attempt to seek solutions to a hypothetical case demonstrating a problem existing in clinical practice. The method behind this is for the authors to review current data on prevalence, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment and ultimately conclude treatment recommendations. Again it is brought to attention that the quantity of literature addressing fantasy is limited, Mardi & Harowitz (2007) pointed out at the beginning of their paper that revenge fantasies have been discussed in literature, however not adequately addressed, a problem common for most papers in this review. Like all other fantasies per se, revenge fantasies can provide a sense of reinstated purpose and regain of control in an otherwise traumatized life and purely for this purpose it is imperative to assist traumatized individuals in recognizing this. Mardi & Harowitz (2007) split the scenario up into sections in sequence to how step by step the scenario would be assessed and addressed in a clinical setting. All important techniques and procedures were discussed such as, the importance of techniques in psychotherapy being put in place with the much needed interpretations and reappraisals and with careful differentiation of rational and irrational beliefs. It was explained that it is then, that the function of revenge fantasies as giving an illusion of strength can be interpreted. Mardi & Harowitz (2007) suggest the fact that the results of therapy may be attenuation of symptoms, and revenge fantasies are deep-rooted, there is an important need for informing the patients that revenge fantasies are likely to return, and are frequently generated by things as simple as seeing a movie, being hurt, or entering an irritated mood as a result of fatigue. Mardi & Harowitz (2007) go on to explain that the professional should help the patient plan a comeback, which can engage in reviewing a pre-established set of ideas, overall they express that their goal is to help the patient gain a sense of restored control, self-esteem, and self-coherence without resorting to the Ã¢â¬Ëstrong-meÃ¢â¬â¢ property of a revenge fantasy. Taking into account the apparent lack of topic specific resources that provide general information on the influences of fantasy in the general public, and the gaps that seem wide open between studies in fantasy, it seems fair to say that the beginning would be a good place to start. As a result the current study will seek to investigate attitudes of the general public toward fantasies, looking to find out what they think fantasies might be and to what extent they think it is normal for people to have them. It will be hypothesised that most people will believe that a fantasy is a mere thought of imagination detached from reality to satisfy emotional desires without logical or moral constraints and likewise most people will agree that it is normal to have fantasies. It is expected that more people will agree, than disagree, that it is ok and can be accepted as normal for people to have homicidal fantasies. Method Design A between-participants point biserial correlation will be used to analyse the data. The independent variables will be the self report personality inventory (IPIP-NEO) and the attitude measuring questions and the dependent variable will be participants score on the IPIP-NEO and the attitude score. Variables such as gender, age, marital status, housing tenure, regions, employment status, income bracket and criminal convictions will also be considered in relation to participant response to both independent variables. Participants According to G Power participant number should be 191, however, for an equal balance, it will be at least 100 males and 100 females. The male and female participants will be ages of or between 21 and 65, and split between four regions (Glasgow, Paisley, Edinburgh & Dundee). Apparatus Participant information sheets (PIS) and consent forms will be given along with questionnaires that will be used to measure psychopathic personality traits (IPIP-NEO) and attitudes on aggressive revenge fantasies. Each participant will be given the same questionnaire to complete. The statistical analysis programme SPSS will be used to analyse and correlate the data. Procedure Each participant will be given a brief introduction of the study and asked if they are willing to take part, if they are willing then they will be asked to carefully read the PIS, sign the consent form, which will be detached from the questionnaire as they will be anonymous, and complete the questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of a self-report personality inventory, the International Personality Item Pool Ã¢â¬â NEO (IPIP-NEO) developed by Witt, Donnellan & Blonigen (2009), of which permission for use was granted by Edward A. Witt. This 40 item inventory will measure the psychopathic personality traits of fearless dominance (20 items) and Impulsive Antisociality (20 items) to assess how high or low participants score in comparison with each other. A four-option multiple response (False, Mostly False, Mostly True, True) format and a Likert-type scale will be used (False = 1, Mostly False = 2, Mostly True = 3, True = 4) to measure the data. In exception, the 1st, 4th, 9th, 14th, 15th,16th and 17th questions of Fearless Dominance will be measured in reverse scale. The second part of the questionnaire consists of 10 questions regarding attitudes toward people having revenge fantasies. Again, a four-option multiple response (strongly disagree, disagree, agree, strongly agree) format and a Likert-type scale will be used (strongly disagree = 1, disagree = 2, agree = 3, strongly agree = 4) to measure the data. Reference Baumeister, R. F. (1990). Suicide as Escape from Self. Psychological Review, 97, 90-113. Egan, V. & Campbell, V. (2009) Sensational Interests, Sustaining Fantasies and Personality Predict Physical Aggression. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 464-469 Gellerman, D. M. & Suddath, R. (2005). Violent Fantasy, Dangerousness, and the Duty to Warn and Protect. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatric Law, 33, 484-495. Greenwald, D. F. & Harder, D. W. (1994). Sustaining Fantasies and Psychopathology in a Normal Sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50, 705-708. Greenwald, D. F. & Harder, D. W. (1995). Sustaining Fantasies, Daydreams, and Psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51, 719-726. Greenwald, D. F. & Harder, D. W. (1997). Fantasies, Coping Behaviour, and Psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 53, 91-97. Harder, D. W. & Zelin, M. L. (1984). Sustaining Fantasies and Self-Concept Among College Students. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 743-748 Mardi, J. & Harowitz, M. D. (2007). Understanding and Ameliorating Revenge Fantasies in Psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 24-27. Selby, E. A., Anestis, M. D. & Joiner Jr, T. E. (2007). Daydreaming About Death: Violent Daydreaming as a Form of Emotion Dysregulation in Suicidality. Behavior Modification, 31, 867-879. Singer, J. L. & Antrobus, J. S. (1972). Daydreaming, Imaginal Processes and Personality: A Normative Study. In P. W. Sheehan (Ed.). The function and nature of imagery. (pp. 175-202). New York: Academic Press. Witt, E. A., Donnellan, M. B. & Blonigen, D. M. (2009). Using Existing Self-Report Inventories to Measure the Psychopathic Personality Trait of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 1006-1016. Zelin, M. L., Bernstein, S. B., Heijn, C., Jampel, R. M., Myerson, P. G., Adler, G., Buie, D. H. & Rizzuto, A. M. (1983). The Sustaining Fantasy Questionnaire: Measurement of Sustaining Functions in Psychiatric Inpatients. Journal of Personality Assessment, 47, 427- 439. Ã
Saturday, January 4, 2020
many heartbreaking situations (that we see countless individuals overcome) would begin to define us as people and keep us from achieving our goals and dreams. Many of the students in my classes come from backgrounds where a good education isnÃ¢â¬â¢t readily available to them or from homes where all they see is negative patterns of interaction and communication danger signs. It is the resiliency within them that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow them to be defined by their circumstances but rather empowers them to seek help in order to ensure a better future. Research shows us that there are risk factors for divorce and abuse but they can be combated greatly through proper interventions such as education. If there is anything that these classes have taught me is that education is key to helping the families within our community thrive despite where they came from. Knowledge Translation and Utilization When it comes to Education and Interventions that are used to Promote Positive Change in Families, I feel that the coursework that best prepared me for this consisted of EPSY 5323: Parent and Family Education as well as EPSY 5423: Marriage and Relationship Education. In the Marriage and Relationship Education course, it was required that we evaluate ourselves and fellow classmates teaching at the very beginning and end of the semester. This proved to be incredibly helpful because it allowed me to see how far I had come not only in my knowledge of the PREP material but also in my level of comfortShow MoreRelatedIs Education A Good For Education?2007 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pageseveryone agrees is good for education: Good education starts with good teachers, adequate funding is critical, and parent involvement is important to student success. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a huge debate out there asking how America can improve its education system. Some argue the key i s in improving the quality of teachers, others insist that itÃ¢â¬â¢s strictly about more money spent on education, but what about parent involvement? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s widely accepted that parents being involved in their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education dramaticallyRead MoreIs A Good Education?999 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA Good Education When I was younger, education was integrated into every part of my life. Even as IÃ¢â¬â¢m taking college classes now, school is still a priority. Today, society tells us that being well-educated is necessary. If you want to be successful and if you want to matter, you have to be well-educated. Society has used tools such as IQ tests, standardized tests in multiple levels of education, and set learning standards. However, education goes beyond statistics and rulings. A basicRead MoreIs Education A Common Good?1299 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesusually wins. Whether its the most wealth, the most power, the most influence, or when speaking of education, the most opportunity; starting out on top has life altering advantages. Many Americans would argue that Education is a common good, a stepping-stone through which students can make something better of their futures. Therefore, should society set up a system to create winners and losers in education? There are also those who belie ve that serving children, stakeholders, and our communities canRead MoreIs Education A Good Thing?1358 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIs education in our society today well rounded enough to prepare students for a successful future for themselves? Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s time to educate the whole person, not just follow regulations and exam pathwaysÃ¢â¬ (Robinson.) We can all agree that having an education is a good thing, but can we really say that formal education, is really allowing a student to achieve their full potential? 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Friday, December 27, 2019
The 2016 Election Year will be one to remember for its controversy and voter turnout. Many people have voiced their opinion about each candidate on social media and through protests during and after the election. Many people of all race and class have registered to vote because they felt it was time for their voice to be heard. The results were a shock to a majority but to some it was highly predictable. Looking at the election through a sociological perspective we can identify some characteristics each candidate had that made them likeable and some are only showing what they want others to see of them. Throughout this election there has been conflict of social class, race, and capitalism. The following five sociologists have theories that predict the outcome of the 2016 election; Goffman, Weber, DuBois, Mills, and Marx. Erving Goffman is one of the most important American sociological theorist in the second half of the century and was also influenced by Durkheim, Freud, and Simmel in his work. He is well known for his analysis of human interaction which is now called Ã¢â¬Å"dramaturgical analysisÃ¢â¬ . Dramaturgical Analysis is the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance. For example, Goffman uses terms like Ã¢â¬Å"frontÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"settingÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"performanceÃ¢â¬ when explaining his theory. The front is also known as the expressive equipment, intentional or unintentional kind employed by the performer. The setting is also part of the front and involves the physical layout likeShow MoreRelatedAdditionally, In His Book Ã¢â¬Å"Distinction,Ã¢â¬ Bourdieu Discusses1321 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdifferent class factions within social spaces, of the Ã¢â¬Å"sacredÃ¢â¬ sphere of culture that legitimates social order. 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Through the tenets of the Critical Race Theory, itÃ¢â¬â¢s been statistically qualified and quantified that minority groups are frequently targeted and suffer from socioeconomic neglect, resulting in homelessness. The Lack of equal access to supportive political policies, as wel l as, economics, healthcare, mental health care, and other resources that are vital to survival. Yet this group of people continue to display resilience. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the civic duty of the social worker communityRead MoreCapitalism in America Essay1019 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world class is considered one of the most important issue in the United States. Class affects people no matter who the person is and the perspective view of class is mostly controlled by the media. In the book Rereading America, there are two essays, Class in America: Gregory Mantsios, Framing Class vicarious living and Conscious Consumption: Diana Kendall, and, the film Capitalism: A Love story: Michael Moore. 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