Monday, May 25, 2020

Can Addiction Be Classified As A Real Addiction - 1932 Words

Can addiction to sex be classified as a real addiction? Features Hypersexual Disorder failed to be included in the appendix of the DSM-V (APA, 2012). This was mainly due to the risks associated with pathologising normal behaviours, and the potential forensic implications associated with such a diagnosis (Kafka, 2010). However, both the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the American Society of Addiction Medicine recognise that a disorder exists in which sexual behaviour is addictive (World Health Organisation, 2007; American Society of Addiction Medicine, 2011) Sex addiction can be defined as an excessive and maladaptive sex drive, which requires the frequency and intensity of sexual behaviours to increase despite†¦show more content†¦These behaviours are often used as coping mechanisms to manage dysphoric affect, as they lack the ability to cope with the emotional pain and shame caused by their behaviour (Carnes, 1999; Kennedy Pendley, 2002). Greiner and Carroll (2008) found that sexually addicted men had higher levels of anxiety, were more likely to have an insecure attachment style, and were distant and avoidant in their close relationships. The mean age of onset is 18.7 years, however, sufferers are most likely to seek treatment during their forties and fifties (Kafka, 2010). Common comorbidites associated with sex addiction include other addictive disorders such as gambling and substance abuse (Kaplan Krueger, 2010), major depression, anxiety and ADHD (Bancroft, 2009). Sex Addiction and Drug Based Addictions Sex addiction and drug based addictions are very similar. They are both characterised by a) a loss of control, b) continuation of behaviour/substance use despite significant adverse consequences, and c) obsession and preoccupation with the behaviour/substance (APA, 2012). Carnes (1991) has identified, as in substance abuse, tolerance and withdrawal components to sex addiction. A sex addict must increase the frequency of their sexual behaviour, just as an opiate addict must take larger doses to achieve the same effect. They also experience distress, anxiety, restlessness and irritability if they are unable to engage in the

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Poem Analysis On His Coy Mistress By Andrew Marvell

Andrew Marvell wrote a unique love poem in â€Å"To His Coy Mistress,† as this poem expresses far more than one might expect or even perceive upon the first reading. Enveloped in this ode to a cherished muse are expressions of the â€Å"carpe diem† philosophy, laments about the impending doom of death, and hopes to transcend contemporary abilities to live forever in the love of another. While Marvell’s primary purpose in writing this piece may have been to woo a young maiden, he made a far more significant contribution to the era’s literary culture in the process. Marvell most directly addressed â€Å"To His Coy Mistress† to a woman he intended to court, as he spends a majority of the piece lamenting that he didn t have time sufficient to praise her features. In the opening stanza, Marvell states that, â€Å"Had we but world enough, and time†¦. An hundred years should go yo praise†¦. An age at least to every part, / And the last age shoul d show your heart† (Marvell 1-18). While Marvell ones not directly praise or describe his muse in any way, he does emphasize how extraordinarily praiseworthy she be, and this idea forms the basis for the philosophical wonderings and realizations that comprised the following stanzas. Thus, Marvell addressed his poem at a potential lover for the purpose of courting her on an unknown occasion, but the real significance of the poem lies in the later ideas he presented to fulfill this purpose. In his second stanza, Marvell takes a drastic turn from the romanticShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Poem Of His Coy Mistress By Andrew Marvell1975 Words   |  8 PagesRyan James Mrs. Dawson English II 21 September 2014 Seize the Day in â€Å"To His Coy Mistress† In the poem â€Å"To His Coy Mistress† by Andrew Marvell, the poet suggests that time is a limited resource, and one must live life at the moment. In the first stanza, the speaker conveys flattery to his addressee (his mistress), revealing how he would endlessly admire her body if time weren’t an issue, and if she wasn’t so shy. Conveying this sense of flattery, he hopes it will convince her to have sexRead More Analysis of To His Coy Mistress by Andrew Marvell Essay809 Words   |  4 PagesAnalysis of To His Coy Mistress by Andrew Marvell Andrew Marvells elaborate sixteenth century carpe diem poem, To His Coy Mistress, not only speaks to his coy mistress, but also to the reader. Marvells suggests to his coy mistress that time is inevitably rapidly progressing and for this he wishes for her to reciprocate his desires and to initiate a sexual relationship. Marvell simultaneously suggests to the reader that he or she should act upon their desires as well, to hesitate no longerRead MoreA Literary Analysis On The Shall I Compare Thee? Essay784 Words   |  4 PagesLiterary Analysis on the â€Å"Shall I Compare Thee?† (Sonnet XVIII) by William Shakespeare and the â€Å"To his Coy Mistress† Poem by Andrew Marvell This article compares the poems â€Å"Shall I Compare Thee?† (Sonnet XVIII) with â€Å"To his Coy Mistress† and examines the purposes of the poems and their implemented poetry techniques to convey their poets ideas. On first look it seems both poems are sharing the common ideas of â€Å"Love† but by analyzing the poems, it becomes clear that the purposes of the two poems are notRead MoreGender Stereotypes And Expectations In Literature1724 Words   |  7 Pagesassumptions about gender shape how readers perceive sex in literature; men are typically considered lustful, whereas women are considered loving. However, the subjects of sex, love, and lust in literature, as demonstrated in poems written by Robert Burns and Andrew Marvell, become increasingly nuanced when gender stereotypes and expectations are questioned and removed. Gender roles, expectations, and stereotypes have shifted and become less clearly defined through time, but they still exist andRead MoreThe s Coy Mistress By Andrew Marvell And The Flea1919 Words   |  8 Pagesthroughout â€Å"To His Coy Mistress† by Andrew Marvell and â€Å"The Flea† by John Donne functions as a way to present, confirm and refute the traditional stereotypical view of carpe diem love poetry. The speakers within both poems aim to â€Å"seize the day† by wooing and taking advantage of women and their virginity and sexuality. They not only want to take advantage of the time they have but also make sure they do not regret not doing anything in the future. In specific, â€Å"To His Coy Mistress† presents the viewRead More To His Coy Mistress by Andrew Marvell Essay877 Words   |  4 PagesTo His Coy Mistress by Andrew Marvell Andrew Marvell is considered a cavalier poet. He writes seduction poems that represent characteristics of cavalier poets through use of clever, witty, and developed lyrics. Marvells To His Coy Mistress is a seduction poem that contains these elements along with the use of rhyme, meter, imagery, and tone. Marvell creates a seduction poem that argues the desire for sexual gratification with a distinct aggressive tone. To begin with the speaker in theRead MoreComparing Easy by Andrew Fusek Peters and Andrew Marvells To his Coy Mistress1736 Words   |  7 PagesComparing Easy by Andrew Fusek Peters and Andrew Marvells To his Coy Mistress After reading the two poems in detail and after doing group analysis the following points were brought up for a further evaluation. These were: theme, ideas, language, imagery and personal opinion. Both poems deal with seduction and relationships but vary of how it is done. In the poem Easy, SEX seemed to be the biggest issue. The relationship here was more of a one time fling or a oneRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Not Coy Mistress By Andrew Marvell1596 Words   |  7 PagesMaira L. Herrera-Sanchez Professor Emily N. Bartz English 203 9 February 2015 Sex Over Time in Andrew Marvell’s, â€Å"To His Coy Mistress† Sex and lust have changed greatly over time, especially since the late 1600s. In the poem, â€Å"To His Coy Mistress† by Andrew Marvell the relationship between sex and time is rather passionate, but shifts as Marvell metaphorically describes time. The horrifying tone put on the metaphors, allusions, and the hyperboles play an important role in the understanding of Marvell’sRead MoreAnalysis of To His Coy Mistress by Andrew Marvell and Sonnet by Elizabeth B. Browning3354 Words   |  14 PagesAnalysis of To His Coy Mistress by Andrew Marvell and Sonnet by Elizabeth B. Browning This assignment will examine two poems that were written before 1914. The two poems I will be focussing on are To His Coy Mistress by Andrew Marvell and Sonnet by Elizabeth B. Browning. In the essay I will be looking at how both poems emphasise love but yet have very different approaches as in the coy mistress the persona is trapping his mistress into falling in love with him and usesRead MoreThe Mythological/Archetypal Approach Reading of Andrew Marvell’s â€Å"to His Coy Mistress†1417 Words   |  6 PagesTo walk, and pass our long love’s day.† In these lines, we assume that time continues forever because the poem describes the leisurely pace of life spent in courtship of the beloved, silent mistress. â€Å"Thou by the Indian Ganges’ side , Shouldst rubies find; I by the tide†. In these lines the speaker embarks on some astonishing hyperbole to describe the praise he wants to give to his mistress. He selects two rivers, India’s Ganges, which is sacred to the Hindu religion and was believed to be the goddess

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on The Meat Industry - 969 Words

The Meat Industry The cattle industry produces vast amounts of strain in the environment. It is energy inefficient, pollutes water, occupies many acres of land, and deteriorates the health of the people who abuse its consumption. The government subsidizes this industry. Therefore, the price paid for meat doesn’t reflect the environmental hazards involved in the process. In order to protect our health and the health of the environment we should pay close attention to our food choices and make sure we don’t support industries that degrade it. The energy return ratio (as food energy per fossil energy expended) of the most energy efficient factory farming of meat is 34.5%, while that of the least energy efficient plant food is 328%.†¦show more content†¦Land is greatly affected by the meat industry. The percentage of U.S. agricultural land used to produce meat is 56%. The strains on land include topsoil erosion and depletion of forested areas. The percentage of U.S topsoil loss directly associated with livestock raising is 85%. In Mexico 37 million acres of forest have been destroyed since 1987 to provide additional grazing land for cattle. The cattle industry is a driving force behind the destruction of the tropical rainforests. Until 1994, in the Amazon the total deforested area was of 450, 000 square Km. The current rate of species extinction due to destruction of tropical rainforest amounts to one thousand per year. Various species of plants live in the tropical rainforest, which can be used for their medicinal properties. These plants need yet to be discovered. We can not afford to risk their extinction. Heart attacks are the number one cause of death in America due to high saturated fat in the bloodstream, as a result of fast food diets. Among other health problems, excessive meat consumption is also linked to colon cancer. Americans consume in average double the amount of protein required by the body. This lowers the levels of calcium. Calcium is needed to process protein, the body acquires it from the bones, weakening them and causing stereoclorosis. Other healthShow MoreRelated meat packing industry Essay1001 Words   |  5 Pagesnbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Rights and responsibilities in the meatpacking industry nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In the early twentieth century, at the height of the progressive movement, â€Å"Muckrakers† had uncovered many scandals and wrong doings in America, but none as big the scandals of Americas meatpacking industry. Rights and responsibilities were blatantly ignored by the industry in an attempt to turn out as much profit as possible. The meat packers did not care if poor working conditions led to sicknessRead MoreTechnical Support For Emerging Meat Industry Technology1067 Words   |  5 PagesBackground Carne Technology was formed in 2004 the main function of this industry is to provide technical support to emerging meat industry technology. The word Carne is a derived from Latin word which means meat. Carne technologies initial focus was on the applying the technology on beef and lamb later the technology was applied to venison, pork, goat and poultry. It has expanded in the year 2006 by having research and development laboratories, due to its progress they have further expanded theRead More Upton Sinclairs The Jungle and the Meat-Packing Industry Today2817 Words   |  12 Pagesillness and pathogens still plague the meatpacking industry since the creation of meatpacking. The government plays a huge role in providing legislation and ensuring the safety of meat products and business. Although the government is meant to inspect and guarantee safety, many unlawful practices appear overlooked pertaining to the safety of meat for consumers. Meatpacking commenced thousands of years ago, and the safety of the meatpacking industry has been evaluated greatly since the industrial revolutionRead MoreEssay on Meat Industry1538 Words   |  7 PagesThe meat industry today is not what it was nearly a century ago. While improvements are thought to have been made, an ever changing society has brought upon new problems that have been piled on to the previously existing ones. While these problems are not like those found in The Jungle, they do parallel how by exposing what is going on in the meat industry; new regulations would be the answer to the noted problems. The increased demand for meat has made it a rushed mutated production instead of aRead MoreMeet, Meat Industry Essay1178 Words   |  5 Pagesproblem. Research is being done with invitro meat, otherwise known as lab grown meat. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should approve invitro meat for human consumption. Animal cruelty caused by the farming industry and large companies is a huge problem that can be av oided with scientific advancements in lab grown meat. The American population does not understand that most meat that produced in the United States comes from four companies that have the meat market monopoly. These four countries areRead MoreThe Meat Industry And Dietary Recommendations873 Words   |  4 PagesAnnotated Bibliographies Ferdman A. Roberto. â€Å"The Meat Industry worst Nightmare could become reality.† The Washington Post. Washington Post. 7, Jan. 2015. Web. 20, Oct. 2015. In The Washington Post, â€Å"The Meat Industry worst nightmare could become reality,† Roberto A. Ferdman, a reporter, acknowledges that meat production causes high amounts of carbon in theRead MoreHealth Risks Of The Meat Industry1358 Words   |  6 PagesHealth Risks in the Meat Industry Over the past decade, the industrial food system has met the needs of American consumers. Food has been in great supply, from breads, to dairy products, to canned goods, to fillets. The meat industry alone has seen a rapid industrialization and provides its own unique challenges and risks. The meat in the grocery stores is plentiful, but it is very different today than it was prior to this rise in production. While the production numbers provide a very clear ideaRead MoreDisruptive Innovations in the Meat Industry1004 Words   |  4 Pagesinnovations: The meat industry The way that Americans and people around the world-are eating is constantly changing. There is a new concern about healthy eating in the wake of the global obesity epidemic and greater awareness about where food comes from in terms of its safety and ethics. The commercial meat industry is being pressured by ordinary consumers as well as animal rights activists to treat animals more humanely, as has been seen by the rise in cage free eggs and organic meat. However,Read MoreThe Extreme Expansion Of The Meat Industry1317 Words   |  6 PagesToday the industries are now dominated by a handful of huge corporations that process most of the country’s meat at several facilities across the country. As of 2007, four huge companies controlled the processing of over 80% of the country’s beef and three of these same companies process over 60% of the country’s pork. Chicken processing provides over half the country’s chicken supply and even the same situation exists for turkey meat. These four major companies are Tyson, JBS, Cargill, and SmithfieldRead MoreThe Environmental Impacts Of The Meat Industry Will Have On It1357 Words   |  6 Pagesconcerns over the environmental impacts that the meat industry will have on it. Artificial meat is a relatively new technology with the potential to be able to match and possibly replace regular meat in the distant future. The benefits could be monumental. Artificial meat would use significantly less land, the environmental impact would be minimized, and people would no longer have to breed and kill animals for the sake of food. The process of artificial meat begins with taking a piece of tissue from an

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Indigenous Health Organization Aboriginal Medical Service

Question: Discuss about theIndigenous Health Organizationfor Aboriginal Medical Service. Answer: Introduction This report is mainly about the Aboriginal Medical Service Alliance Territory that is an indigenous health organization. It mainly puts emphasis on the health service of the aboriginal people. The mission of this organization is to cure the ailments of the native people of the Northern Territory of Australia. This report contains the background of this organization, the vision and objectives of this organization, the activities of this organization and the member-service of this organization and the contacts and location of this organization. In the end, there is comment on the reflection of this organization. Brief History and Background of the Organization Aboriginal Medical Service Alliance Territory has played a significant role in defending the rights of the native people of the in the Northern Territory of Australia regarding health care. The main motive of the organization is taking the responsibility of the aboriginal people by securing their funds regarding health services. This organization has linked with the National aboriginal and Islander Health Organization which is presently called NACCHO . This organization was established in October 1994. The foundation of the new structure of the Aboriginal Medical Service occurred from July 1996 to April 1998. Summits formed various health related meetings for the aboriginal people. The Banatjarl Health Summit occurred from 2ND August to 6th August in 1999. The Summit was organized to discuss about the health condition of the native people of Northern Territory. Decisions were taken about the process of health examination of the aboriginal people and the steps that were to be taken to improve the health condition of the people in the 1999 summit (Ilton et al., 2014). AMSANT Fresh Food Summit occurred in 10 May of 2010 to gather the native people, people in government services and the nutritionists to make a discussion about the food security of the in context to regional communities and remote areas. The Native people who stay in remote areas do not get proper accession of doctors and health care. Funds provided by Commonwealth are not sufficient to meet the needs of the native people (Davy et al., 2015). AMSANT has carried campaigns so that the Commonwealth government cashout for the medical purpose of the aboriginal purpose. This cashing-out campaign paved the way to the Aboriginal Coordinated Trials in the NT (1996-1997) and the announcement of the 1999 budget for the Primary Health Care Process Access Programme ( PHCAP). Vision and Objectives of the Organization The main vision of this organization is to make the aboriginal people happy and increase the longevity of the native people with better health. This organization also works for the improvement of the health and works for the purpose that the aboriginal people should have control over the primary health care system. This organization focuses on the fact that the the aboriginal peopled gets equal justice in terms of health and support them by founding the best health care system for them. The main motive of this organization is to bring the aboriginal people in the main stream of society. There are certain objectives of this organization. They are as follows: To support the aboriginal people by providing them culturally appreciative health service in the local communities (Shephard et al., 2014). This organization encourages the members of this organization to research about the main causes of their illness within the Aboriginal territory (Wakerman et al., 2016). The organization is very particular about the cultural matters of the native people. Finally, the main objective of this organization is to mitigate sufferings, ailments, poverty and hardships of this aboriginal people (Bailie et al., 2014). There are certain steps to meet the objectives. They are as follows:- To advocate the cultural awareness and virtue of Aboriginal Community Controlled extensive primary health care (Harfield et al., 2015). The organizations have to respect the opinions of the members and safeguard the rights of the people. Activities of the Indigenous Health Organization This health organization has various activities to fulfill the crisis of the health needs of the aboriginal people, which must be supervised and managed by the local communities. They are as follows :- The first is the e-health unit, which collaborates with the key health care unit so that the health care providers with the help of this e-health service can solve health issues (Hoy et al., 2014). They have used Electronic Clinical Information system to continue this e-health unit. The AMSANT also works in research and policy They supervise many research projects and execute research activities in the organization. It also supports the members to become engage in the research activities. AMSANT has also collaboration with Australian Indigenous Organization Alcohol and Other Drugs Knowledge Centre ( AOD) so that the organization can cure the patients from within. AMSANT is well aware of the fact that social causes are somehow responsible for the deterioration for the health. Therefore, they takes the initiative to uproot the problem from its roots and conduct the AOD and mental health programmes to sort out this social issue, which indirectly hampers the health of a person (Lee et al., 2014). There are certain aboriginal health forums in this organization. They are- The Primary Health Care Unit is the main essence of this organization in the Northern Territory of Australia because it allows the availability of health care service to the aboriginal people in the local communities and remote areas (Panaretto et al., 2014). Hospitals and Specialist care is one of the major focuses of this organization. The organization tries to provide extensive health care unit for critical patients (Dwyer et al., 2014) .It also tries to meet the social, cultural and health care of the aboriginal people and their kins. Another important thing is the forum also concentrates on the social determinates for the deterioration of the health. The Public Health Network works as a community of medical professionals who are involved in Primary Medical Care unit. The network also includes experts in Public Health Medical Officers. The main goals of this network are : The Public Health Network must discuss about the public health problems that affects the aboriginal people (Wilkes et al.,2014) . The people who are involved in this network must inform the clinicians about the transformations in the health sector. They also have the responsibility to inform the clinicians about the policies of AMSANT Members of the Organization The chief executive of this AMSANT organization is John Pearson and the chairperson is Marion Scrymgour. There are different member services of this organization. They are: Amoonguna Health Clinic, Ampilatwatja Health Centre Aboriginal, Anyinginyi Health Aboriginal Corporation, Bagot Community Health Unit ,Balunu Foundation ,Central Australian Aboriginal Alcohol Programme Unit ,Central Australian Aboriginal Congress ,Danila Dilba Health Service Aboriginal Corporation ,Katherine West Board Aboriginal Organization , Laynhapuy Homelands Aboriginal Corporation ,Ltyentye Apurte Community Health Centre ( Santa Teresa) , Malabam Health Board Aboriginal Corporation , Marthakal Homeland Health Service , Miwatj Health Aboriginal Corporation ,Mutitjulu Health Service ,Ngaanyatjarra Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Womens Council, Pintupi Homelands Health Service ,Red Lily Health Board ,Sunrise Health Service Aboriginal Corporation ,Urapuntja Health Service Utju Health Service Health Aboriginal Co rporation ,Western Aranda Health Aboriginal Corporation ( WAHAC) ,Western Desert Nganampa Walytja Palyantjaku Tjutaku Aboriginal Corp, Wurli Wurlinjang Health Service. Contacts and Location of the Organization There are two offices of the AMSANT organization. One office is at Darwin and Alice Spring. Darwin Address- MOONTA HOUSE 43 Mitchell Street, Darwin Northern Territory 0800 Postal Address -GPO Box 1624, Darwin Northern Territory 0801 Telephone Number (08) 8944 66 Fax : ( 08) 8981 4825 Email Alice Spring Postal Address PO Box 1464, Alice Springs Northern Territory 0871 Address -34-38, Hartley St. Alice Springs Northern Territory 0870 Telephone:(08) 8959 4600 Fax:(08) 8953 0553 The link of website of this organization is - Comments and Reflections AMSANT health organization is an organization dedicated to the health care service of the aboriginal people. This organization has great farsightedness that people suffer not only due to physical ailment but also mainly due to the socio-economic problems. Hence, this organization tried to concentrate on the social problems of the aboriginal people. This organization also puts emphasis on the cultural issue of the native people and they deal this issue with great care (Smith et al., 2015). Conclusion In the conclusion we can say, that the ASMANT organization motive is to give the access of the primary health care to the aboriginal tribes of the Northern Territory in Australia. These aboriginal people comes from very poor background, so in order to provide them the best medical service, this organization has taken different initiatives to provide the best medical care. The infrastructure and the principles formed by this ASMANT organization are remarkable. Many other organizations have collaboration with this health care organization that enhances the growth of this organization. Although this organization provides health service to the aboriginal people of Northern Territory of Australia but it also puts much emphasis on the mental and cultural cause of the health ailment. Reference Bailie, J., Schierhout, G. H., Kelaher, M. A., Laycock, A. F., Percival, N. A., ODonoghue, L. R., ... Bailie, R. S. (2014). Follow-up of Indigenous-specific health assessmentsa socioecological analysis.Med J Aust,200(11), 653-657. Davy, C., Kite, E., Aitken, G., Dodd, G., Rigney, J., Hayes, J., Van Emden, J. (2015). What keeps you strong? How primary healthcare and aged care services can support the wellbeing of older Indigenous peoples: a systematic literature review protocol.JBI database of systematic reviews and implementation reports,13(12), 47-58. Dwyer, J., Boulton, A., Lavoie, J. G., Tenbensel, T., Cumming, J. (2014). Indigenous peoples health care: new approaches to contracting and accountability at the public administration frontier.Public Management Review,16(8), 1091-1112. Harfield, S., Davy, C., Kite, E., McArthur, A., Munn, Z., Brown, N., Brown, A. (2015). Characteristics of Indigenous primary health care models of service delivery: a scoping review protocol.JBI database of systematic reviews and implementation reports,13(11), 43-51. Hoy, W. E., Swanson, C. E., Hope, A., Smith, J., Masters, C. (2014). Evidence for improved patient management through electronic patient records at a Central Australian Aboriginal Health Service.Australian and New Zealand journal of public health,38(2), 154-159. Ilton, M. K., Walsh, W. F., Brown, A. D., Tideman, P. A., Zeitz, C. J., Wilson, J. (2014). A framework for overcoming disparities in management of acute coronary syndromes in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. A consensus statement from the National Heart Foundation of Australia.Med J Aust,200(11), 639-43. Lee, K. S., Harrison, K., Mills, K., Conigrave, K. M. (2014). Needs of Aboriginal Australian women with comorbid mental and alcohol and other drug use disorders.Drug and alcohol review,33(5), 473-481. Panaretto, K. S., Wenitong, M., Button, S., Ring, I. T. (2014). Aboriginal community controlled health services: leading the way in primary care.Med J Aust,200(11), 649-52. Shephard, M. D., Spaeth, B. A., Mazzachi, B. C., Auld, M., Schatz, S., Lingwood, A. ... Daniel, V. (2014). Toward Sustainable Point-of-Care Testing in Remote Australiathe Northern Territory i-STAT Point-of-Care Testing Program.Point of Care,13(1), 6-11. Smith, J. A., Schmitt, D., Fereday, L., Bonson, J. (2015). Ethics and health promotion within policy and practice contexts in a small jurisdiction: perspectives from the Northern Territory.Health promotion journal of Australia: official journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals,26(3), 231. Wakerman, J., Humphreys, J., Bourke, L., Dunbar, T., Jones, M., Carey, T. A., ... Murakami-Gold, L. (2016). Assessing the Impact and Cost of Short-Term Health Workforce in Remote Indigenous Communities in Australia: A Mixed Methods Study Protocol.JMIR research protocols,5(4). Wilkes, E., Gray, D., Casey, W., Stearne, A., Dadd, L. (2014). Harmful substance use and mental health.Working together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mental health and wellbeing principles and practice, 125-146

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Henry Viii Essay Research Paper From any free essay sample

Henry Viii Essay, Research Paper From any point of position the devastation of the English monasteries by Henry VIII must be regarded as one of the great events of the 16th century. They were looked upon in England, at the clip of Henry # 8217 ; s breach with Rome, as one of the great ramparts of the apostolic system. The monastics had been called # 8220 ; the great standing ground forces of Rome. # 8221 ; One of the first practical consequences of the premise of the highest religious powers by the male monarch was the supervising by royal edict of the ordinary Episcopal trials, and the assignment of a layperson # 8212 ; Thomas Cromwell # 8212 ; as the male monarch # 8217 ; s vicar-general in spirituals, with particular authorization to see the cloistered houses, and to convey them into line with the new order of things. This was in 1534 ; and, some clip prior to the December of that twelvemonth, agreements were already being made for a systematic trial. We will write a custom essay sample on Henry Viii Essay Research Paper From any or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page A papers, dated 21 January, 1535, allows Cromwell to carry on the visit through # 8220 ; commissaries # 8221 ; # 8212 ; instead than personally # 8212 ; as the curate is said to be at that clip excessively busy with # 8220 ; the personal businesss of the whole kingdom. # 8221 ; It is now practically admitted that, even prior to the issue of these committees of trial, the undertaking of stamp downing some, if so non all, of the cloistered constitutions in the state, had non merely been broached, but had become portion of Henry # 8217 ; s practical political relations. It is good to retrieve this, as it throws an interesting and slightly unexpected light upon the first disintegrations: the monasteries were doomed prior to these trials, and non in effect of them, as we have been asked to believe harmonizing to the traditional narrative. Parliament was to meey early in the undermentioned twelvemonth, 1536, and, with the double object of refilling an dog-tired treasury and of expe cting resistance on the portion of the spiritual to the proposed ecclesiastical alterations, harmonizing to the royal design, the Commons were to be asked to allow Henry the ownerships of at least the smaller monasteries. It must hold been felt, nevertheless, by the astute Cromwell, who is credited with the first construct of the design, that to win, a undertaking such as this must be sustained by strong yet simple grounds calculated to appeal to the popular head. Some nice stalking-horse had to be found for showing the proposed step of suppression and arrogation to the state, and it can barely now be doubted that the device of melanizing the characters of the monastics and nuns was intentionally resorted to. The trial opened seemingly in the summer of 1535, although the visitatorial powers of the bishops were non suspended until the eighteenth of the undermentioned September. Preachers were furthermore commissioned to travel over the state in the early fall, in order, by their vituperations, to educate public sentiment against the monastics. These pulpit speechmakers were of three kinds: # 8220 ; railers # 8221 ; , who declaimed against the spiritual as # 8220 ; dissemblers, magicians, and idle drones, etc. # 8221 ; ; # 8220 ; sermonizers # 8221 ; , who said the monastics # 8220 ; made the land unprofitable # 8221 ; ; and those who told the people that, # 8220 ; if the abbeys went down, the male monarch would neer desire any revenue enhancements again. # 8221 ; This last was a favorite statement of Cranmer, in his discourses at St. Paul # 8217 ; s Cross. The work forces employed by Cromwell # 8212 ; the agents entrusted with the undertaking of acquiring up the needed grounds # 8212 ; were chiefly four, Layton, Leigh, Aprice, and London. They were good fitted for their work ; and the charges brought against the good name of some at least of the monasteries, by these chosen envoies of Cromwell are, it must be confessed, sufficiently awful, although even their studies surely do non bear out the modern impression of sweeping corruptness. The trial seems to hold been conducted consistently, and to hold passed through three clearly defined phases. During the summer the houses in the West of England were subjected to scrutiny ; and this part of the work came to an terminal in September, when Layton and Leigh arrived at Oxford and Cambridge severally. In October and November the visitants changed the field of their labors to the eastern and southeasterly territories ; and in December we find Layton progressing through the Midland counties to Lichfield, where he met Leigh, who had finished his work in the spiritual houses of Huntingdon and Lincolnshire. Thence they proceeded together to the North, and the metropolis of York was reached on 11 January, 1536. But with all their hastiness, to which they were urged by Cromwell, they had non proceeded really far in the work of their northern review before the meeting of Parliament. From clip to clip, whilst on their work of review, the visitants, and chiefly London and Leigh, sent brief studies to their employers. Practically all the accusals made against the good name of the monastics and nuns are contained in the letters sent in this manner by the visitants, and in the papers, or paperss, known as the # 8220 ; Comperta Monastica # 8221 ; , which were drawn up at the clip by the same visitants and forwarded to their head, Cromwell. No other grounds as to the province of the monasteries at this clip is forthcoming, and the enquirer into the truth of these accusals is driven back ultmately upon the worth of these visitants # 8217 ; words. It is easy, of class, to disregard inconvenient informants as being unworthy of recognition, but in this instance a mere survey of these letters and paperss is rather sufficient to project considerable uncertainty upon their testimony as entirely unworthy of belief. It is of class impossible to come in into the inside informations of the trial. We must, hence, base on balls to the 2nd measure in the disintegration. Parliament met on 4 February, 1536, and the head concern it was called upon to transact was the consideration and passing of the act stamp downing the smaller spiritual houses. It may be good to province precisely what is known about this affair. We know for certain that the male monarch # 8217 ; s proposal to stamp down the smaller spiritual houses gave rise to a long argument in the Lower House, and that Parliament passed the step with great reluctance. It is more than singular, furthermore, that in the preamble of the Act itself Parliament is careful to throw the full duty for the step upon the male monarch, and to declare, if words mean anything at all, that they took the truth of the charges against the good name of the spiritual, entirely upon the male monarch # 8217 ; s # 8220 ; declaration # 8221 ; that he knew the charges to be true. It must be remembered, excessively, that one simple fact proves that the existent accusals or # 8220 ; comperta # 8221 ; # 8212 ; whether in the signifier of the visitants # 8217 ; notes, or of the fabulous # 8220 ; Black-book # 8221 ; # 8212 ; could neer hold been placed before Parliament for its consideration in item, still less for its critical scrutiny and judgement. We have the # 8220 ; Comperta # 8221 ; paperss # 8212 ; the findings of the visitants, whatever they may be deserving, whilst on their unit of ammunitions, among the province documents # 8212 ; and it may be easy seen that no differentiation whatever is made in them between the greater and lesser houses. All are, to utilize a common look, # 8220 ; tarred with the same coppice # 8221 ; ; all, that is, are every bit smirched by the foul suggestions of Layton and Leigh, of London and Aprice. # 8220 ; The thought that the smaller monasteries instead than the larger were peculiar residences of frailty # 8221 ; , writes Dr. Gairdner, the editor of the State documents of this period, # 8220 ; is non borne out by the # 8216 ; Comperta # 8217 ; . # 8221 ; Yet the preamble of the very Act, which suppressed the smaller monasteries because of their barbarous life, declares positively that # 8220 ; in the great and grave Monasteries of the kingdom # 8221 ; faith was good ascertained and God good served. Can it be imagined for a minute that this averment could hold found its manner into the Act of Parliament, had the studies, or # 8220 ; Comperta # 8221 ; , of the visitants been laid upon the tabular array of the House of Commons for the review of the members? We are accordingly compelled by this fact to accept as history the history of the affair given in the preamble of the first Act of disintegration: viz. that the step was passed on the strength of the male monarch # 8217 ; s # 8220 ; declaration # 8221 ; that the charges against the smaller houses were true, and o n that alone. In its concluding form the first step of suppression simply enacted that all the spiritual houses non possessed of an income of more than 200 lbs a twelvemonth should be given to the Crown. The caputs of such houses were to have pensions, and the spiritual, despite the alleged corruption of some, were to be admitted to the larger and more observant monasteries, or to be licensed to move as secular priests. The step of depravity fixed by the Act was therefore a monetary 1. All cloistered constitutions which fell below the 200 lbs a twelvemonth criterion of # 8220 ; good life # 8221 ; were to be given to the male monarch to be dealt with at his # 8220 ; pleasance, to the honor of God and the wealth of the realm. # 8221 ; This money bound at one time rendered it necessary, as a first measure in the way of disintegration, to determine which houses came within the operation of the Act. Equally early as April, 1536 ( less than a month from the passing of the step ) , we find assorted committees of functionaries and state gentlemen appointed in effect to do studies of the spiritual houses, and instructions issued for their counsel. The returns made by these commissioners are of the highest importance in finding the moral province of the spiritual houses at the clip of their disintegration. It is now beyond difference that the accusals of Cromwell # 8217 ; s visitants were made prior to, non after ( as most authors have mistakenly supposed ) , the fundamental law of these assorted committees of aristocracy and functionaries. The chief intent for which the commissioners were nominated was of class to happen out what houses possessed an income of less than 200 lbs a twelvemonth ; and to take over such in th e male monarch # 8217 ; s name, as now by the late Act lawfully belonging to His Majesty. The aristocracy and functionaries were nevertheless instructed to happen out and describe upon # 8220 ; the conversation of the lives # 8221 ; of the spiritual ; or in other words they were specially directed to analyze into the moral province of the houses visited. Unfortunately, relatively few of the returns of these assorted committees are now known to be ; although some have been discovered, which were unknown to Dr. Gairdner when he made his # 8220 ; Calendar # 8221 ; of the paperss of 1536. Fortunately, nevertheless, the extant studies trade expressly with some of the very houses against which Layton and Leigh had made their pestiferous suggestions. Now that the suppression was resolved upon and made legal, it did non affair to Henry or Cromwell that the inmates should be described as # 8220 ; evil livers # 8221 ; ; and so the new commissioners returned the religious of the same ho uses as being truly # 8220 ; of good virtuous conversation # 8221 ; , and this, non in the instance of one house or territory merely, but, as Gairdner says, # 8220 ; the characters of the inmates are about uniformly good. # 8221 ; To fix for the response of the expected spoils, what was known as the Augmentation Office was established, and Sir Thomas Pope was made its first financial officer, 24 April, 1536. On this same twenty-four hours instructions were issued for the counsel of the assorted committees in the work of fade outing the monasteries. Harmonizing to these waies, the commissioners, holding interviewed the superior and shown him the # 8220 ; Act of Dissolution # 8221 ; , were to do all the functionaries of the house swear to reply truthfully any inquiries put to them. They were so to exmine into the moral and fiscal province of the constitution, and to describe upon it, every bit good as upon the figure of the spiritual and # 8220 ; the conversation of their lives. # 8221 ; After that, an stock list of all the goods, movables, and home base was to be taken, and an # 8220 ; indentation # 8221 ; or opposite number of the same was to be left with the superior, dating from 1 March, 1536, because from that day of the month all had passed into the ownership of the male monarch. Thenceforward the higher-up was to be held responsible for the safe detention of the male monarch # 8217 ; s belongings. At the same clip the commissioners were to publish their bids to the caputs of the houses non to have any more rents in the name of the convent, nor to pass any money, except for necessary disbursals, until the king # 8217 ; s pleasance should be known. They were, nevertheless, to be purely enjoined to go on their attention over the lands, and # 8220 ; to seed and cultivate # 8221 ; as before, until such tme as some male monarch # 8217 ; s husbandman should be appointed and alleviate them of this responsibility. As for the monastics, the officer was told # 8220 ; to direct those that will stay in faith to other houses with letters to the governors, and those that wish to travel to the universe to my Godhead of Canterbury and the Godhead Chancellor of the Exchequer for # 8221 ; their letters to have some benefices or lifes when such could be found for them. One funny fact about the disintegration of the smaller monasteries deserves particular notice. No Oklahoman had the male monarch obtained ownership of these houses under the money value of 200 lbs a twelvemonth, than he commenced to refound some # 8220 ; in sempiternity # 8221 ; under a new charter. In this manner no fewer than 52 spiritual houses in assorted parts of England gained a impermanent reprieve from extinction. The cost, nevertheless, was considerable, non entirely to the spiritual, but to their friends. The belongings was once more confiscated and the spiritual were eventually swept off, before they had been able to refund the amounts borrowed in order to buy this really slight favor at the custodies of the royal legal owner. In difficult hard currency the financial officer of the Court of Augmentation acknowledges to hold received, as simply # 8220 ; portion payment of the assorted amounts of money due to the male monarch for mulcts or composings for the acceptance an d continuation # 8221 ; of merely thirty-one of these refounded monasteries, some 5948 lbs, 6s. 8d. or barely less, likely, than 60,000 lbs of 1910 money. Sir Thomas Pope, he financial officer of the Court of Augmentation, artlessly added that he has non counted the arrears due to the office under this caput, # 8220 ; since all and each of the said monast Eries, before the stopping point of the history, have come into the King’s custodies by resignation, or by the authorization of Parliament have been added to the augmentation of the royal revenues.† â€Å"For this reason† , he adds, â€Å"the King has remitted all amounts of money still due to him, as the residue of their mulcts for his royal toleration.† The amounts paid for the fresh foundations â€Å"in perpetuity† , which in world as the event showed meant merely the reprieve of a twosome of old ages or so, varied well. As a regulation they represented about three times the one-year gross of the house ; but sometimes, as in the instance of St. Mary’s, Winchester, which was fined 333 lbs 6s. 8d. , for leave to go on, it was reestablished with the loss of some of its richest ownerships. It is slightly hard to gauge right the figure of spiritual houses which passed into the male monarch # 8217 ; s ownership in virtuousness of the Act of Parliament of 1536. Stowe # 8217 ; s estimation is by and large deemed sufficiently near the grade, and he says: # 8220 ; the figure of the houses so suppressed was 376. # 8221 ; In regard to the value of the belongings, Stowe # 8217 ; s estimation would besides look to be well right when he gives 30,000 lbs, or some 300,000 lbs of 1910 money, as the annual income derived from the confiscated lands. There can be no uncertainty, nevertheless, that later the promises of big one-year grosss from the old spiritual estates proven illusory, and that, in malice of the rack-renting of the Crown husbandmans, the cloistered estates furnished less money for the royal bag than they had antecedently done under the thrifty direction and personal supervising of their former proprietors. As to the value of the spoils which came from the wrecked and demolished houses, where the waste was everyplace so great, it is of course hard to measure the value of the money home base, and gems which were sent in sort into the male monarch # 8217 ; s exchequer, and the returns from the sale of the lead, bells, stock, furniture, and even the cloistered edifices. It is, nevertheless, moderately certain that Lord Herbert, following Stowe, has placed the sum really received at excessively high a figure. Not, of class, that these goods were non deserving immensely more than the unit of ammunition 100,000 lbs, at which he estimates them ; but nil like that amount was really received or acknowledged by Sir Thomas Pope, as financial officer of the Court of Augmentation. Corruptness, without a uncertainty, existed everyplace, from the lowest attender of the sing commissioner to the highest tribunal functionary. But leting for the countless ways in which the cloistered ownerships could be plundered in the procedure of transference to their new owner, it may non be much beyond the grade to set these # 8220 ; Robin Hood # 8217 ; s pennyworths # 8221 ; , as Stowe calls them, at about 1,000,000 lbs of 1910 money. Something must needfully be said of the existent procedure which was followed by the Crown agents in fade outing these lesser monasteries. It was much the same in every instance, and it was a slightly long procedure, since the work was non all done in a twenty-four hours. The axial rotations of history, sent into the Augmentation Office by the commissioners, show that it was often a affair of six to seven weks before any house was eventually dismantled and its inmates had all been turned out of doors. The main commissioners paid two official visits to the scene of operations during the advancement of the work. On the first twenty-four hours they assembled the superior and his topics in the Chapter House, announced to the community and its dependants their at hand day of reckoning ; called for and defaced the convent seal, the symbol of corporate being, without which no concern could be transacted ; desecrated the church ; took ownership of the best home base and vestments # 8220 ; u nto the King # 8217 ; s use # 8221 ; ; measured the lead upon the roof and calculated its value when melted ; counted the bells ; and appraised the goods and movables of the community. Then they passed on to the scene of their following operations, go forthing behind them certain low-level officers and workingmans to transport out the designed devastation by depriving the roofs and drawing down the troughs and rain pipes ; runing the lead into hogs and fresh fishs, throwing down the bells, interrupting them with sledge-hammers and packing the metal into barrels ready for the visit of the speculator and his command for the spoils. This was followed by the work of roll uping the furniture and selling it, together with the window frames, shutters, and doors by public auction or private stamp. When all this had been done, the commissioners returned to scrutinize the histories and to fulfill themselves by and large that the work of desolation had been accomplished to the male monarch # 8217 ; s contentment # 8212 ; that the nest had been destroyed and the birds scattered # 8212 ; that what had been a memorial of architectural beauty in the yesteryear was now a # 8220 ; bare roofless choir, where tardily the sweet birds sang. # 8221 ; No Oklahoman had the procedure of devastation begun at the same time all over the state than the people began at last to recognize that the benefits likely to accrue to them out of the loot were most illusive. When this was understood, it was foremost proposed to show a request to the male monarch from the Lords and Commons, indicating out the apparent harm which must be done to the state at big if the step was carried out to the full ; and inquiring that the procedure of suppression should be at one time stopped, and that the lesser houses, which had non yet been dissolved under the authorization of the Act of 1536, shold be allowed to stand. Nothing, of class, came of this effort. Henry # 8217 ; s appetency was but whetted by what had come to him, and he merely hungered for more of the spoils of the Church and the hapless. The action of the Parliament in 1536 in allowing the first step to go jurisprudence made it in world much more hard for Henry to pull back ; and in more senses than one it paved the manner for the general disintegration. Here and at that place in the state active opposition to the work of devastation was organized, and in the instance of Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, and the North by and large, the popular rise of the # 8220 ; pilgrims journey of grace # 8221 ; was caused in the chief, or at least in great step, by the desire of the people at big to salvage the spiritual houses from pitiless devastation. The failure of the rebellion of the # 8220 ; Pilgrimage of Grace # 8221 ; was celebrated by the executing of 12 archimandrites, and, to utilize Henry # 8217 ; s ain words, by a sweeping # 8220 ; tying-up # 8221 ; of monastics. By a new and clever procedure, suitably called # 8220 ; Dissolution by Attainder # 8221 ; , an abbey was considered by the royal advisors to fall into the male monarch # 8217 ; s custodies by the supposed or constructive lese majesty of its superior. In this manner several of the larger abbeys, with all their gr osss and ownerships, came into Henry # 8217 ; s custodies as a effect of the # 8220 ; Pilgrimage of Grace. # 8221 ; The Parliament of 1536, it will be remembered, had granted Henry the ownership merely of the houses the one-year value of which was less than 200 lbs. What happened in the three old ages that followed the passing of the At was briefly this: the male monarch was sick satisfied with the existent consequences of what he had thought would turn out a regular gold mine. Personally, possibly, he had non gained every bit much as he had hoped for from the disintegrations which had taken topographic point. The belongings of the monastics someway seemed cursed by its beginning ; it passed from his control by a thousand-and-one channels, and he was shortly thirsting for a greater award, which, as the event showed, he was every bit unable to guard for his ain utilizations. By his instructions, visitants were one time more set in gesture against the larger abbeys, in which, harmonizing to the Act of 1536, faith was # 8220 ; right good maintain and observed. # 8221 ; Not holding received any auth orization from Parliament to authorise the extension of their proceedings, the royal agents, eager to win a topographic point in his favor, were busy up and down the state, wheedling, haling, commanding, and endangering the members of the spiritual houses in order to coerce them to give up their monasteries unto the King # 8217 ; s Majesty. As Dr. Gairdner puts it: # 8220 ; by assorted humanistic disciplines and means the caputs of these constitutions were induced to give up, and on occasion when an archimandrite was found, as in the instance of Woburn, to hold committed lese majesty in the sense of the recent legislative acts, the house ( by a stretch of the oppressive Torahs ) was forfeited to the male monarch by his civil death. But civil deaths were surely the exclusion, resignations being the general rule. # 8221 ; The fall of 1537 saw the beginning of the autumn of the friaries in England. For some ground, perchance because of their poorness, they had non been brought under the Act of 1536. For a twelvemonth after the # 8220 ; Pilgrimage of Grace # 8221 ; few disintegrations of houses, other than those which came to the male monarch by the civil death of their higher-ups, are recorded. With the banquet of St. Michael, 1537, nevertheless, besides the convents of mendicants the work of procuring of procuring, by some agencies or other, the resignation of the greater houses went on quickly. The instructions given to the royal agents are clear. They were, by all methods known to them, to acquire the spiritual # 8220 ; volitionally to consent and agree # 8221 ; to their ain extinction. It was merely when they found # 8220 ; any of the said caputs and convents, so appointed to be dissolved, so willful and obstinate that they would in no wise # 8221 ; hold to subscribe and seal their ain death- warrant, that the commissioners were authorized by Henry # 8217 ; s instructions to # 8220 ; take ownership of the house # 8221 ; and belongings by force. And whilst therefore engaged, the royal agents were ordered to declare that the male monarch had no design whatsoever upon the cloistered belongings or system as such, or any desire to procure the entire suppression of the spiritual houses. They were instructed at all costs to set a halt to such rumors, which were of course rife all over the state at this clip. This they did ; and the unscrupulous Dr. Layton declared that he had told the people everyplace that # 8220 ; in this they absolutely slandered the King their natural lord. # 8221 ; He bade them non to believe such studies ; and he # 8220 ; commanded the archimandrites and priors to put in the stocks # 8221 ; such as related such untrue things. It was, nevertheless, as may be imagined, hard plenty to stamp down the rumor whilst the existent thing was traveling on. In 1538 and 1539 some 150 monasteries of work forces appear to hold signed away their corporate being and their belongings, and by a formal title handed over all rights to the male monarch. When the work had progressed sufficiently the new Parliament, which met in April, 1539, after detecting that frogmans archimandrites and others had yielded up their houses to the male monarch, # 8220 ; without restraint, coercion, or irresistible impulse # 8221 ; , confirmed these resignations and vested all cloistered belongings therefore obtained in the Crown. Finally in the fall of that twelvemonth, Henry # 8217 ; s victory over the cloistered orders was completed by the atrocious deceases for constructive lese majesty of the three great archimandrites of Glastonbury, Colchester, and Reading. And so, as one author has said, # 8220 ; before the winter of 1540 had set in, the last of the abbeys had been added to the ruins with which the land was strewn from one terminal to the other. # 8221 ; It is hard, of class, to gauge the exact figure of spiritual and spiritual houses suppressed at this clip in England. Puting all beginnings of information together, it seems that the monastics and regular canons expelled from the greater monasteries were about 3200 in figure ; the mendicants, 1800 ; and the nuns, 1560. If to these should be added the figure of those affected by the first Act of Parliament, it is likely non far from the truth to state that the figure of spiritual work forces and adult females expelled from their places by the suppression were, in unit of ammunition Numberss, about 8000. Besides these, of class, there were likely more than ten times that figure of people turned adrift who were their dependants, or otherwise obtained a life in their service. If it is hard to find, with any certainty, the figure of the spiritual in cloistered England at the clip of the disintegration of the monasteries, it is still more so to give any accurate estimation of the belongings involved. Speed calculated the one-year value of the full belongings, which passed into Henry # 8217 ; s custodies at some 171,312 lbs. Other ratings have placed it at a higher figure, so that a modern computation of the one-year value at 200,000 lbs, or some 2,000,000 lbs of 1910 money, is likely non inordinate. Hence, as a unsmooth computation, it may be taken that at the autumn of the monasteries an income of approximately two million lbs sterling a twelvemonth, of the 1910 money value, was taken from the Church and the hapless and transferred to the royal bag. It may, nevertheless, be at one time stated that Henry obviously neer derived anything like such a amount from the dealing. The capital value was so diminished by gratuitous grants, gross revenues of lands at nominal values, and in legion other ways, that in fact, for the 11 old ages from 1536 to 1547, the Augmentation Office accounts show that the king merely drew an mean annual income of 37,000 lbs, or 370,000 lbs of 1910 money, from belongings which, in the custodies of the monastics, had likely produced five times the sum. Equally far as can be gathered from the histories still extant, the entire grosss of the male monarch from the cloistered arrogations from April, 1536, to Michaelmas, 1547, was about 13 million and a half of 1910 money, to which must be added about a million sterling, the runing value of the cloistered home base. Of this amount, go forthing out of computation the home base and gems, non rather three 1000000s were spent by the male monarch personally ; 600,000 l bs was spent upon the royal castles, and about half a million on the family of the Prince of Wales. More than five 1000000s sterling are accounted for under the caput of war disbursals, and about 700,000 lbs were spent on seashore defense mechanism. Pensions to spiritual individuals account for 330,000 lbs ; and one funny point of 6000 lbs is entered as spent # 8220 ; to procure the resignation of the Abbey of Abingdon. # 8221 ;

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

buy custom Aristotle essay

buy custom Aristotle essay Aristotle asserts that the main objective of any person living is that they attain happiness at the end of it all. In order to achieve such happiness, all their actions ought to be done in a manner that is aimed at good. This fact stresses that the achievement should be virtuous. People are incapable of doing things that they consider bad for them. The actions that are undertaken by human beings are not the main goals. Rather, they only act as a means to a higher purpose. Human beings aim at the attainment of happiness for its own sake. It is not because it accomplishes any other thing. Due to this, happiness is the ultimate mission in the life of an individual and, therefore, should take a virtuous path. Since virtue is something that makes people capable of performing their functions well and in a succinct manner, it is, therefore, the virtue of any person that enables human beings attain the habits that reflect their goodness. Deriving from ethical virtues concern with feelings and actions, a person should always maintain the appropriate feelings during the appropriate times and for the correct purpose (Irwin). It is because a person is capable of making an error simply due to their movement towards the incorrect feeling, timing or reasons in a way that makes them either excess or deficient. There are two types of virtues, intellectual and ethical. Intellectual virtue originates and grows from education as it needs knowledge and time. Moral virtue originates from habit. Moral virtues can, therefore, be said to arise in people by nature. Everything that comes to people through nature has to be learned primarily and later exhibited in a particular activity. Virtues are achieved by implementing them in life since the things people learn before doing them have to be learnt by doing them. It is how a good virtue is produed and damaged. Through committing the acts that people do in their transactions with others, they become just or unjust. Also, by performing the acts that they do in the presence of danger, and being adapted to feel fear or confidence, they become brave or faint-hearted. This notion also applies to appetites and feeling of rage, some individuals become calm and good-tempered, others become self-indulgent and irritable by conducting themselves in one way or an other in the suitable situations. Therefore, conditions of character originate from similar activities. This is the reason the activities people show have to be of a certain kind. It happens because the condition of a character corresponds to the differences between them (Irwin). The things found in the soul are of three types, passions, faculties, and conditions of character. Passions mean the feelings that are generally accompanied by pleasure or pain. Faculties mean the things in virtues that have the potential of feeling angry, pity, and happy among others. The condition of character implies the things in virtue that people well or badly relate to passion. For example, in relation to anger, people feel it violently or too weakly, and well if they feel it moderately. People do not receive praises or blames for their passions for a person cannot be accused for feeling angry but may be blamed for feeling it in a certain way. However, for virtues and vices, people may be blamed or praised. Also, people experience annoyance or fear without choosing. The virtues, however, involve making choices. The virtue of a person is the condition of character which makes results in their being good individuals and which lets them do their own work properly. The excellence of a horse makes a horse both good in itself and good at running and at carrying its rider and awaiting the attack of the enemy (Irwin). From the teachings of Aristotle concerning the relationship between feelings and virtue, however, there is nothing stated by him regarding what makes feelings either voluntary or involuntary. Rather, he places virtually all the focus on the issue of actions. He simply considers that the voluntary ones that are praised and blamed (Irwin). Actions and feelings may be voluntary and may be considered as being worthy of the blame or praise that they receive. To Aristotle, there is no particular contribution from the agent or the person that is affected. This fact demonstrates an effect of involuntariness in that a person simply acts in the light of external influence (Irwin). Furthermore, having the consideration that the aspects of ethical virtue are subjected to their determination by a prudent person, Aristotle leaves human beings in a state that is not settled. It lacks the finality that would qualify it as being a reasonable representation and explanation of the actions and feelings of human beings. It is because there is often a certain inconsistency between the various reasoning of different persons. Due to this fact, some of the actions or feelings that are committed or felt by human beings are considered as simply bad or good. For instance, the actions and feelings that have been declared as bad in every aspect include murder, malice, envy, and theft. The assertion by Aristotle is that the ultimate goal of every human being is the achievement of happiness. As a result, people ought to construe the world and implement their actions in a way that promotes virtue. It is only in doing this that the individual can attain the happiness that they desire in their lives. Feelings and actions are intertwined in a manner that a person is incapable of executing actions that are right or virtuous if they harbor inappropriate or bad feelings. 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Saturday, February 22, 2020

Logic and thought Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Logic and thought - Essay Example Astrologers try to justify their beliefs by claiming that their work is based on science, but science is based on fact while astrology is not. Statistical studies can give support to the claims of astrology, but this is impossible in this case because astrology cannot be measured. 2 line A: Since the middle of the twentieth century, countless scientific studies that have ultimately supported the basic principles of astrology have been conducted. B: Michel Gauquelin, a noted French statistician, spent much of his life using statistical methods to investigate astrology; he established the truth of a number of claims, including the Mars effect, which proved a relationship between the planet Mars and outstanding athletes. †¢ Astrology needs to be taken more seriously as an art and science that can contribute to human well-being. This argument is incorrect because it cannot be proven 100 percent that scientific studies support the views of astrology. The fallacy for this argument is a genetic fallacy. For the French statistician, he cannot prove his theory of the Mars effect because other factors may have influenced the results. Astrology is linked with destiny, personality, human affairs, and natural events.